Less frequent conditions which may be caused by H. influenzae infection include:
- septic arthritis
For more information on H. influenzae, visit the NHS Inform website.
Guidance on Haemophilus influenzae can be found below:
- For more information on Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) immunisation, including updates, please refer to the Public Health England (PHE) Green Book, Chapter 16.
- Find out about Public Health England's management of Hib.
- Training and educational materials for healthcare professionals are on the NHS Education for Scotland (NES) website.
For all infection prevention and control guidance visit the A-Z pathogens section of the National Infection and Prevention Control Manual.
Data and surveillance
In 1992, following introduction of the Hib vaccine for young children, the number of H. influenzae type b cases fell dramatically, not only in the vaccinated group but also in older age groups. Due to reduced carriage of the organism within the respiratory tract of vaccinated children, transmission to the wider community was effectively suppressed. The addition of the Hib booster vaccine in 2006, reduced case numbers further.
In Scotland, typing is conducted on all cases with positive laboratory reports for H. influenzae, in order that national trends in disease subtypes can be monitored. Further enhanced surveillance is carried out for all H. influenzae cases identified in children under the age of 5 and type b strains across all age groups.
Surveillance update for January to March 2021
Four cases of invasive H. influenzae were reported in the first quarter of 2021.This is considerably lower than the case numbers reported for the same period in the previous four years (range 23 to 33), as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Cumulative number of Haemophilus influenzae cases reported to PHS, 2016 to 2021 (week 13)
All four cases reported in the first quarter of 2021 were in people over 40 years old.
Three cases had H. influenzae isolated from pleural fluid, and one from blood.
There were no known deaths associated with H. influenzae in the first quarter of 2021.
Figure 2 demonstrates the epidemiological impact of the Hib vaccine, for those aged under five (routinely vaccinated group) and for all ages (including under fives). There was a marked decrease in cases from 1992 in all age groups, followed by a rise in case numbers in the early 2000s. Case numbers decreased again following the introduction of the Hib booster vaccine, and figures have remained relatively stable since 2011.
Figure 2: Laboratory reports of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in Scotland, 1988 to 2021 (week 13)
Figure 3 presents laboratory reports by serotype, since the introduction of the Hib booster campaign in 2003.
One of the four isolates from the first quarter of 2021 was non-typable (NT). Typing was not carried out for the remaining three isolates.
Figure 3: Laboratory reports of Haemophilus influenzae by serotype, 2003 to 2021 (week 13)
Vaccine uptake statistics
Vaccine uptake statistics are published by Public Health Scotland Data and Intelligence.